PAKISTAN is located in South Asia, Pakistan shares an eastern border with India and a northern-eastern border with China.Iran makes up the country’s southwest border, and Afghanistan runs along its western and northern edge. The Arabian Sea is Pakistan’s southern boundary with 1,064 km of coastline. The country has a total area of 796,100 sq. km and is nearly four times the size of United Kingdom. From Ghawadar Bay in its southeastern corner, the country extends more than 1,800 km to the Khunjerab Pass on China's border. Nature has blessed Pakistan with mountains, rivers, steppes and deserts. Most of the land is barren mountains and arid plateaus whereas the Himalayan, Hindu-kush and Karakorum Ranges occupy the Northern part. Among the biggest rivers are the Indus (2,896 km long) & Satlej (1,551 km long).
Nature has also bestowed Pakistan with unlimited wealth.There are lots of minerals; fuel and energy resources like Oil, Coal and Natural Gas have been discovered. The flora and fauna in Pakistan are diverse. Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple and Mulberry are the famous trees whereas the fauna includes The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chin Kara, Black Buk, Neelgai, Markhor, Marco Polo Sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile and Water fowls
The mineral wealth of the Pakistan occurs essentially in the Himalayas, Karakorum, Hindu-Kush areas and principle minerals include aquamarine, emerald, ruby, garnet, topaz, Tourmaline and period. There are many other minerals from more than 100 localities including spinel groups, epidote, quartz, beryl.
Climatically and physically Pakistan comprises of five main geographical regions,
1-In the extreme north are the loftiest mountains in the world, the Karakorum, the Himalaya, the Hindu-Kush with their snow covered peaks and numerous glaciers and alpine climate
2-Southward these are followed by an arid to semi-arid zone comprising a chain of sub-Himalayan ranges, which trend east-west in the north but gradually curve southward in the form of the Suleiman and Kirthar ranges, which continue up to the Arabian Sea
3-The vast and extremely arid inland drainage area of Chagai, the Coastal drainage area of Makran, regions which consist of low narrow hills and intervening valleys
4-The semi-arid fertile flood plain of the Indus to the east, the latter is followed eastward by
5-The Cholistan and Thar deserts, along the Indian border
The minerals are directly related to the Geodynamic evolution of the greater Himalayan orogen. The closure of the Tethys led to welding of Karakorum plate to Kohistan magmatic arc along the Shyok suture during the Late Cretaceous, and Indian plate to the Karakorum Kohistan assembly during Paleocene-Early Eocene. These events were preceded, accompanied and followed by extensive magmatism and metamorphism that caused the genesis of the gemstones.
The mountains in the north of Pakistan are rich with the variety of minerals including aquamarine, tourmaline, ruby, red and blue spinels, sapphire, topaz, garnet, peridot, emerald,pargasite, diopside, epidot, agate, quartz, rutile, zircon,fluorite, apatite, moonstone, amethryst, sphene, actinolite,rodingite, vesuvianite, axinite etc. Most of the gemstones are find in the pegmatite-related, such as aquamarine, topaz, garnet, apatite and tourmaline and some of the gemstones are hydrothermal or metamorphic in genesis such as emerald, ruby, sapphire, pargasite etc. These pegmatites are normally composed of albite and microcline, quartz, biotite, muscoviteand tourmaline.
The occurrences of gemstones in Pakistan,
A fairly large variety of gemstones is found in Pakistan, some of these are mined whereas the mere occurrence of the others has been reported. They may be categorized and listed as follow
1-Suture associated gemstones
Spinel Rodingite Epidote
3-Gem stones in Hydrothermal Viens
Pink topaz, Zircon Rutlite
4- Miscellaneous gem stones